2010年4月20日星期二

LVM HOWTO



LVM HOWTO


AJ Lewis




















































Revision History
Revision 0.52003-02-10Revised by: ajl
Updated Redhat initscript information for 7.0 and above;
Added information on removing a partition table from a
disk if pvcreate fails;
Default PE size is 32MB now;
Updated method for snapshotting under XFS.
Revision 0.42002-12-16Revised by: ajl
Updated for LVM 1.0.6
Revision 0.32002-09-16Revised by: ajl
removed example pvmove from Command Operations section - we now
just point to the more detailed recipe on pvmove that contains
various warnings and such
Revision 0.22002-09-11Revised by: ajl
Updated for LVM 1.0.5 and converted to DocBook XML 4.1.2.
Revision 0.12002-04-28Revised by: gf
Initial conversion from Sistina's LaTeX source and import to
tLDP in LinuxDoc format.




This document describes how to build, install, and configure
LVM for Linux. A basic description of LVM is also included.
This version of the HowTo is for 1.0.6.




This document is distributed in the hope that it will
be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY, either expressed
or implied. While every effort has been taken to ensure
the accuracy of the information documented herein, the
author(s)/editor(s)/maintainer(s)/contributor(s)
assumes NO RESPONSIBILITY for any errors, or for any
damages, direct or consequential, as a result of the
use of the information documented herein.




Table of Contents
Introduction
1. Latest Version
2. Disclaimer
3. Authors
1. What is LVM?
2. What is Logical Volume Management?
2.1. Why would I want it?
2.2. Benefits of Logical Volume Management on a Small System
2.3. Benefits of Logical Volume Management on a Large System
3. Anatomy of LVM
3.1. volume group (VG)
3.2. physical volume (PV)
3.3. logical volume (LV)
3.4. physical extent (PE)
3.5. logical extent (LE)
3.6. Tying it all together
3.7. mapping modes (linear/striped)
3.8. Snapshots
4. Acquiring LVM
4.1. Download the source
4.2. Download the development source via CVS
4.3. Before You Begin
4.4. Initial Setup
4.5. Checking Out Source Code
4.6. Code Updates
4.7. Starting a Project
4.8. Hacking the Code
4.9. Conflicts
5. Building the kernel module
5.1. Building a patch for your kernel
5.2. Building the LVM module for Linux 2.2.17+
5.3. Building the LVM modules for Linux 2.4
5.4. Checking the proc file system
6. Boot time scripts
6.1. Caldera
6.2. Debian
6.3. Mandrake
6.4. Redhat
6.5. Slackware
6.6. SuSE
7. Building LVM from the Source
7.1. Make LVM library and tools
7.2. Install LVM library and tools
7.3. Removing LVM library and tools
8. Transitioning from previous versions of LVM to LVM 1.0.6
8.1. Upgrading to LVM 1.0.6 with a non-LVM root partition
8.2. Upgrading to LVM 1.0.6 with an LVM root partition and initrd
9. Common Tasks
9.1. Initializing disks or disk partitions
9.2. Creating a volume group
9.3. Activating a volume group
9.4. Removing a volume group
9.5. Adding physical volumes to a volume group
9.6. Removing physical volumes from a volume group
9.7. Creating a logical volume
9.8. Removing a logical volume
9.9. Extending a logical volume
9.10. Reducing a logical volume
9.11. Migrating data off of a physical volume
10. Disk partitioning
10.1. Multiple partitions on the same disk
10.2. Sun disk labels
11. Recipes
11.1. Setting up LVM on three SCSI disks
11.2. Setting up LVM on three SCSI disks with striping
11.3. Add a new disk to a multi-disk SCSI system
11.4. Taking a Backup Using Snapshots
11.5. Removing an Old Disk
11.6. Moving a volume group to another system
11.7. Splitting a volume group
11.8. Converting a root filesystem to
LVM
12. Dangerous Operations
12.1. Restoring the VG UUIDs using uuid_editor
12.2. Sharing LVM volumes
13. Reporting Errors and Bugs
14. Contact and Links
14.1. Mail lists
14.2. Links



Introduction


This is an attempt to collect everything needed to know to get LVM up
and running. The entire process of getting, compiling, installing, and
setting up LVM will be covered. Pointers to LVM configurations that
have been tested with will also be included. This version of the
HowTo is for LVM 1.0.6.

All previous versions of LVM are considered obsolete and are only kept
for historical reasons. This document makes no attempt to explain or
describe the workings or use of those versions.


1. Latest Version


We will keep the latest version of this HOWTO in the CVS with the
other LDP HowTos. You can get it by checking out
``LDP/howto/linuxdoc/LVM-HOWTO.sgml'' from the same CVS server as
GFS. You should always be able to get a human readable version of
this HowTo from the
http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/LVM-HOWTO.html





2. Disclaimer


This document is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY, either expressed or implied. While every
effort has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the information
documented herein, the
author(s)/editor(s)/maintainer(s)/contributor(s) assumes NO
RESPONSIBILITY for any errors, or for any damages, direct or
consequential, as a result of the use of the information documented
herein.




3. Authors


List of everyone who has put words into this file.

Please notify the HowTo maintainer if you believe you should be
listed above.





Chapter 1. What is LVM?


LVM is a Logical Volume Manager implemented by Heinz Mauelshagen for
the Linux operating system. As of kernel version 2.4, LVM is
incorporated in the main kernel source tree. This does not mean,
however, that your 2.4.x kernel is up to date with the latest version
of LVM. Look at the
README
for the latest information about which kernels have the latest code in
them.




Chapter 2. What is Logical Volume Management?


Logical volume management provides a higher-level view of the disk
storage on a computer system than the traditional view of disks and
partitions. This gives the system administrator much more flexibility
in allocating storage to applications and users.

Storage volumes created under the control of the logical volume
manager can be resized and moved around almost at will, although this
may need some upgrading of file system tools.

The logical volume manager also allows management of storage volumes in
user-defined groups, allowing the system administrator to deal with
sensibly named volume groups such as "development" and "sales" rather
than physical disk names such as "sda" and "sdb".


2.1. Why would I want it?


Logical volume management is traditionally associated with large
installations containing many disks but it is equally suited to
small systems with a single disk or maybe two.




2.2. Benefits of Logical Volume Management on a Small System


One of the difficult decisions facing a new user installing Linux
for the first time is how to partition the disk drive. The need to
estimate just how much space is likely to be needed for system
files and user files makes the installation more complex than is
necessary and some users simply opt to put all their data into one
large partition in an attempt to avoid the issue.

Once the user has guessed how much space is needed for /home /usr /
(or has let the installation program do it) then is quite common
for one of these partitions to fill up even if there is plenty of
disk space in one of the other partitions.

With logical volume management, the whole disk would be allocated
to a single volume group and logical volumes created to hold the /
/usr and /home file systems. If, for example the /home logical
volume later filled up but there was still space available on /usr
then it would be possible to shrink /usr by a few megabytes and
reallocate that space to /home.

Another alternative would be to allocate minimal amounts of space
for each logical volume and leave some of the disk unallocated.
Then, when the partitionsstart to fill up, they can be expanded as
necessary.

As an example:

Joe buys a PC with an 8.4 Gigabyte disk on it and installs Linux
using the following partitioning system:








/boot /dev/hda1 10 Megabytes
swap /dev/hda2 256 Megabytes
/ /dev/hda3 2 Gigabytes
/home /dev/hda4 6 Gigabyes


This, he thinks, will maximize the amount of space available for all his MP3
files.
Sometime later Joe decides that he want to install the latest
office suite and desktop UI available but realizes that the root
partition isn't large enough. But, having archived all his MP3s
onto a new writable DVD drive there is plenty of space on /home.

His options are not good:

  1. Reformat the disk, change the partitioning scheme and
    reinstall.

  2. Buy a new disk and figure out some new partitioning scheme
    that will require the minimum of data movement.

  3. Set up a symlink farm from / to /home and install the new
    software on /home


With LVM this becomes much easier:

Jane buys a similar PC but uses LVM to divide up the disk in a similar
manner:








/boot /dev/vg00/boot 10 Megabytes
swap /dev/vg00/swap 256 Megabytes
/ /dev/vg00/root 2 Gigabytes
/home /dev/vg00/home 6 Gigabytes
 


When she hits a similar problem she can reduce the size of /home by
a gigabyte and add that space to the root partition.

Suppose that Joe and Jane then manage to fill up the /home
partition as well and decide to add a new 20 Gigabyte disk to their
systems.

Joe formats the whole disk as one partition (/dev/hdb1) and moves
his existing /home data onto it and uses the new disk as /home. But
he has 6 gigabytes unused or has to use symlinks to make that disk
appear as an extension of /home, say /home/joe/old-mp3s.

Jane simply adds the new disk to her existing volume group and
extends her /home logical volume to include the new disk. Or, in
fact, she could move the data from /home on the old disk to the new
disk and then extend the existing root volume to cover all of the
old disk.




2.3. Benefits of Logical Volume Management on a Large System


The benefits of logical volume management are more obvious on large
systems with many disk drives.

Managing a large disk farm is a time-consuming job, made
particularly complex if the system contains many disks of different
sizes. Balancing the (often conflicting) storage requirements of
various users can be a nightmare.

User groups can be allocated to volume groups and logical volumes
and these can be grown as required. It is possible for the system
administrator to "hold back" disk storage until it is required. It
can then be added to the volume(user) group that has the most
pressing need.

When new drive are added to the system, it is no longer necessary
to move users files around to make the best use of the new storage;
simply add the new disk into an exiting volume group or groups and
extend the logical volumes as necessary.

It is also easy to take old drives out of service by moving the
data from them onto newer drives - this can be done online, without
disrupting user service.

To learn more about LVM, please take a look at the other papers
available at
Logical Volume Manager: Publications, Presentations and Papers
.





Chapter 3. Anatomy of LVM


This diagram gives a overview of the main elements in an LVM system:








+-- Volume Group --------------------------------+
| |
| +----------------------------------------+ |
| PV | PE | PE | PE | PE | PE | PE | PE | PE | |
| +----------------------------------------+ |
| . . . . |
| . . . . |
| +----------------------------------------+ |
| LV | LE | LE | LE | LE | LE | LE | LE | LE | |
| +----------------------------------------+ |
| . . . . |
| . . . . |
| +----------------------------------------+ |
| PV | PE | PE | PE | PE | PE | PE | PE | PE | |
| +----------------------------------------+ |
| |
+------------------------------------------------+
 


Another way to look at is this (courtesy of
Erik B錱fors
on the linux-lvm mailing list):








hda1 hdc1 (PV:s on partitions or whole disks)
\ /
\ /
diskvg (VG)
/ | \
/ | \
usrlv rootlv varlv (LV:s)
| | |
ext2 reiserfs xfs (filesystems)
 




3.1. volume group (VG)


The Volume Group is the highest level abstraction used within the
LVM. It gathers together a collection of Logical Volumes and
Physical Volumes into one administrative unit.




3.2. physical volume (PV)


A physical volume is typically a hard disk, though it may well just
be a device that 'looks' like a hard disk (eg. a software raid
device).




3.3. logical volume (LV)


The equivalent of a disk partition in a non-LVM system. The LV is
visible as a standard block device; as such the LV can contain a
file system (eg. /home).




3.4. physical extent (PE)


Each physical volume is divided chunks of data, known as physical
extents, these extents have the same size as the logical extents
for the volume group.




3.5. logical extent (LE)


Each logical volume is split into chunks of data, known as logical
extents. The extent size is the same for all logical volumes in
the volume group.




3.6. Tying it all together


A concrete example will help:

Lets suppose we have a volume group called VG1, this volume group
has a physical extent size of 4MB. Into this volume group we
introduce 2 hard disk partitions, /dev/hda1 and /dev/hdb1. These
partitions will become physical volumes PV1 and PV2 (more
meaningful names can be given at the administrators discretion).
The PV's are divided up into 4MB chunks, since this is the extent
size for the volume group. The disks are different sizes and we
get 99 extents in PV1 and 248 extents in PV2. We now can create
ourselves a logical volume, this can be any size between 1 and 347
(248 + 99) extents. When the logical volume is created a mapping
is defined between logical extents and physical extents, eg.
logical extent 1 could map onto physical extent 51 of PV1, data
written to the first 4 MB of the logical volume in fact be written
to the 51st extent of PV1.




3.7. mapping modes (linear/striped)


The administrator can choose between a couple of general strategies
for mapping logical extents onto physical extents:

  1. Linear mapping will assign a
    range of PE's to an area of an LV in order eg., LE 1 - 99 map to
    PV1 and LE 100 - 347 map onto PV2.

  2. Striped mapping will interleave
    the chunks of the logical extents across a number of physical
    volumes eg.,








    1st chunk of LE[1] -> PV1[1],
     

    2nd chunk of LE[1] -> PV2[1],

    3rd chunk of LE[1] -> PV3[1],

    4th chunk of LE[1] -> PV1[2],


    and so on. In certain situations this strategy can improve the
    performance of the logical volume. Be aware however, that LVs
    created using striping cannot be extended past the PVs they were
    originally created on.





3.8. Snapshots


A wonderful facility provided by LVM is 'snapshots'. This allows
the administrator to create a new block device which is an exact
copy of a logical volume, frozen at some point in time. Typically
this would be used when some batch processing, a backup for
instance, needs to be performed on the logical volume, but you
don't want to halt a live system that is changing the data. When
the snapshot device has been finished with the system administrator
can just remove the device. This facility does require that the
snapshot be made at a time when the data on the logical volume is
in a consistent state, later sections of this document give some
examples of this.

More information on snapshots can be found in
Section 11.4Taking a Backup Using Snapshots.





Chapter 4. Acquiring LVM


The first thing you need to do is get a copy of LVM.

  • Download via FTP a tarball of LVM.

  • Download the source that is under active development via
    CVS




4.1. Download the source


There are source tarballs for the
latest version
.








NoteThe LVM kernel patch must be generated using the LVM source.
More information regarding this can be found at the section on

Chapter 5Building the kernel module.





4.2. Download the development source via CVS


Note: the state of code in the
CVS repository fluctuates wildly. It will contain bugs. Maybe ones
that will crash LVM or the kernel. It may not even compile.
Consider it alpha-quality code. You could lose data. You have
been warned.




4.3. Before You Begin


To follow the development progress of LVM, subscribe to the LVM
Section 14.1mailing lists, lvm-devel and
lvm-commit.

To build LVM from the CVS sources, you
must have several GNU tools:

  • the CVS client version 1.9 or better

  • GCC 2.95.2

  • GNU make 3.79

  • autoconf, version 2.13 or better





4.4. Initial Setup


To make life easier in the future with regards to updating the CVS
tree create the file $HOME/.cvsrc and
insert the following lines. This configures useful defaults for
the three most commonly used CVS commands. Do this now before
proceeding any further.








diff -u -b -B
checkout -P
update -d -P
 


Also, if you are on a slow net link (like a dialup), you will want
to add a line containing cvs -z5 in this file.
This turns on a useful compression level for all CVS commands.

Before downloading the development source code for the first time
it is required to log in to the server:








# cvs -d :pserver:[email protected]:/data/cvs login
 


The password is `cvs1'. The command outputs nothing if successful
and an error message if it fails. Only an initial login is
required. All subsequent CVS commands read the password stored in
the file $HOME/.cvspass for authentication.




4.5. Checking Out Source Code


The following CVS checkout command will retrieve an initial copy of
the code.








# cvs -d :pserver:[email protected]:/data/cvs checkout LVM
 


This will create a new directory LVM in your current directory
containing the latest, up-to-the-hour LVM code.

CVS commands work from anywhere inside the
source tree, and recurse downwards. So if you happen to issue an
update from inside the `tools' subdirectory it will work fine, but
only update the tools directory and it's subdirectories. In the
following command examples it is assumed that you are at the top of
the source tree.




4.6. Code Updates


Code changes are made fairly frequently in the CVS repository.
Announcements of this are automatically sent to the lvm-commit
list.

You can update your copy of the sources to match the master
repository with the update command. It is not necessary to check
out a new copy. Using update is significantly faster and simpler,
as it will download only patches instead of entire files and update
only those files that have changed since your last update. It will
automatically merge any changes in the CVS repository with any
local changes you have made as well. Just cd to the directory you'd
like to update and then type the following.








# cvs update


If you did not specify a tag when you checked out the source, this
will update your sources to the latest version on the main branch.
If you specified a branch tag, it will update to the latest version
on that branch. If you specified a version tag, it will not do
anything.




4.7. Starting a Project


Discuss your ideas on the developers list before you start.
Someone may be working on the same thing you have in mind or they
may have some good ideas about how to go about it.




4.8. Hacking the Code


So, have you found a bug you want to fix? Want to implement a
feature from the TODO list? Got a new feature to implement?
Hacking the code couldn't be easier. Just edit your copy of the
sources. No need to copy files to .orig or
anything. CVS has copies of the originals.

When you have your code in a working state and have tested as best
you can with the hardware you have, generate a patch against the
current sources in the CVS repository.








# cvs update
# cvs diff > patchfile



Mail the patch to the Section 14.1lvm-devel list
with a description of what changes or additions you implemented.




4.9. Conflicts


If someone else has been working on the same files as you have, you
may find that there are conflicting modifications. You'll discover
this when you try to update your sources.








# cvs update

RCS file: LVM/tools/pvcreate.c,v
retrieving revision 1.5
retrieving revision 1.6
Merging differences between 1.5 and 1.6 into pvcreate.c
rcsmerge: warning: conflicts during merge
cvs server: conflicts found in tools/pvcreate.c
C tools/pvcreate.c



Don't panic! Your working file, as it existed before the update, is
saved under the filename .#pvcreate.c.1.5.
You can always recover it should things go horribly wrong. The
file named `pvcreate.c' now contains
both the old (i.e. your) version
and new version of lines that conflicted. You simply edit the file
and resolve each conflict by deleting the unwanted version of the
lines involved.








<<<<<<< pvcreate.c
j++;
=======
j--;
>>>>>>> 1.6
 


Don't forget to delete the lines with all the ``<'', ``='', and
``>'' symbols.





Chapter 5. Building the kernel module


To use LVM you will have to build the LVM kernel module (recommended),
or if you prefer rebuild the kernel with the LVM code statically
linked into it.

Your Linux system is probably based on one of the popular
distributions (eg., Redhat, Debian) in which case it is possible that
you already have the LVM module. Check the version of the tools you
have on your system. You can do this by running any of the LVM
command line tools with the '-h' flag. Use
pvscan -h if you don't know any of the commands.
If the version number listed at the top of the help listing is LVM
1.0.6, use your current setup and
avoid the rest of this section.


5.1. Building a patch for your kernel


In order to patch the linux kernel to support LVM 1.0.6, you must
do the following:

  1. Unpack LVM 1.0.6








    # tar zxf lvm_1.0.6.tar.gz



  2. Enter the root directory of that version.








    # cd LVM/1.0.6



  3. Run configure








    # ./configure


    You will need to pass the option
    --with-kernel_dir to configure if your
    linux kernel source is not in
    /usr/src/linux.
    (Run ./configure --help to see all the
    options available)

  4. Enter the PATCHES directory








    # cd PATCHES



  5. Run 'make'








    # make


    You should now have a patch called
    lvm-1.0.6-$KERNELVERSION.patch in the
    patches directory. This is the LVM kernel patch referenced
    in later sections of the howto.

  6. Patch the kernel








    # cd /usr/src/linux ; patch -pX < /directory/lvm-1.0.6-$KERNELVERSION.patch







5.2. Building the LVM module for Linux 2.2.17+


The 2.2 series kernel needs to be patched before you can start
building, look elsewhere for instructions on how to patch your
kernel.

Patches:

  1. rawio patch

    Stephen Tweedie's raw_io patch which can be found at
    http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/sct/raw-io

  2. lvm patch

    The relevant LVM patch which should be built out of the
    PATCHES sub-directory of the LVM distribution. More
    information can be found in
    Section 5.1, Building a patch for your kernel.


Once the patches have been correctly applied, you need to make sure
that the module is actually built, LVM lives under the block
devices section of the kernel config, you should probably request
that the LVM /proc information is compiled as well.

Build the kernel modules as usual.




5.3. Building the LVM modules for Linux 2.4


The 2.4 kernel comes with LVM already included although you should
check at the Sistina web site for updates, (eg. v2.4.9 kernels and
earlier must have the
latest LVM patch applied
). When configuring your kernel look for LVM under
Multi-device support (RAID and
LVM)
. LVM can be compiled into the kernel or as a
module. Build your kernel and modules and install then in the usual
way. If you chose to build LVM as a module it will be called
lvm-mod.o

If you want to use snapshots with ReiserFS, make sure you apply the
linux-2.4.x-VFS-lock patch (there are copies
of this in the
LVM/1.0.6/PATCHES directory.)




5.4. Checking the proc file system


If your kernel was compiled with the /proc file system (most are)
then you can verify that LVM is present by looking for a /proc/lvm
directory. If this doesn't exist then you may have to load the
module with the command








# modprobe lvm-mod


If /proc/lvm still does not exist then check
your kernel configuration carefully.

When LVM is active you will see entries in
/proc/lvm for all your physical volumes,
volume groups and logical volumes. In addition
there is a "file" called
/proc/lvm/global which gives a summary
of the LVM status and also shows just which version of the LVM
kernel you are using.





Chapter 6. Boot time scripts


Boot-time scripts are not provided as part of the LVM distribution,
however these are quite simple to do for yourself.

The startup of LVM requires just the following two commands:








# vgscan
# vgchange -ay



And the shutdown only one:








# vgchange -an


Follow the instructions below depending on the distribution of
Linux you are running.


6.1. Caldera


It is necessary to edit the file
/etc/rc.d/rc.boot. Look for the line that
says "Mounting local filesystems" and insert the
vgscan and vgchange commands just before it.

You may also want to edit the the file
/etc/rc.d/init.d/halt to deactivate the volume
groups at shutdown. Insert the








vgchange -an


command near the end of this file just after the filesystems are
unmounted or mounted read-only, before the comment that says
"Now halt or reboot".



6.2. Debian


If you download the debian lvm tool package, an initscript should
be installed for you.

If you are installing LVM from source, you will still need to build
your own initscript:

Create a startup script in /etc/init.d/lvm
containing the following:








#!/bin/sh
 

case "$1" in
start)
/sbin/vgscan
/sbin/vgchange -ay
;;
stop)
/sbin/vgchange -an
;;
restart|force-reload)
;;
esac

exit 0


Then execute the commands









# chmod 0755 /etc/init.d/lvm
# update-rc.d lvm start 26 S . stop 82 1 .



Note the dots in the last command.



6.3. Mandrake


No initscript modifications should be necessary for current
versions of Mandrake.




6.4. Redhat


For Redhat 7.0 and up, you should not need to modify any
initscripts to enable LVM at boot time if LVM is built into the
kernel. If LVM is built as a module, it may be necessary to
modify /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit to load the
LVM module before the section that reads:







# LVM initialization, take 2 (it could be on top of RAID)
if [ -e /proc/lvm -a -x /sbin/vgchange -a -f /etc/lvmtab ]; then
action $"Setting up Logical Volume Management:" /sbin/vgscan &&
/sbin/vgchange -a y
fi










NoteThis init script fragment is from RedHat 7.3 - other versions
of Redhat may look slightly different.


For versions of Redhat older than 7.0, it is necessary to edit the
file /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit. Look for the line
that says "Mount all other filesystems" and insert the
vgscan and vgchange commands just before it. You should be sure
that your root file system is mounted read/write before you run the
LVM commands.

You may also want to edit the the file
/etc/rc.d/init.d/halt to deactivate the volume
groups at shutdown. Insert the








vgchange -an


command near the end of this file just after the filesystems are
mounted read-only, before the comment that says "Now halt or
reboot"
.



6.5. Slackware


Slackware 8.1 requires no updating of boot time scripts in order to
make LVM work.

For versions previous to Slackware 8.1, you should apply the
following patch to /etc/rc.d/rc.S








cd /etc/rc.d
cp -a rc.S rc.S.old
patch -p0 < rc.S.diff


(the cp part to make a backup in case).








----- snip snip file: rc.S.diff---------------
--- rc.S.or Tue Jul 17 18:11:20 2001
+++ rc.S Tue Jul 17 17:57:36 2001
@@ -4,6 +4,7 @@
#
# Mostly written by: Patrick J. Volkerding, <[email protected]>
#
+# Added LVM support <[email protected]>
 

PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin:/bin:/usr/bin

@@ -28,19 +29,21 @@
READWRITE=yes
fi

+
# Check the integrity of all filesystems
if [ ! READWRITE = yes ]; then
- /sbin/fsck -A -a
+ /sbin/fsck -a /
+ # Check only the root fs first, but no others
# If there was a failure, drop into single-user mode.
if [ ? -gt 1 ] ; then
echo
echo
- echo "*******************************************************"
- echo "*** An error occurred during the file system check. ***"
- echo "*** You will now be given a chance to log into the ***"
- echo "*** system in single-user mode to fix the problem. ***"
- echo "*** Running 'e2fsck -v -y <partition>' might help. ***"
- echo "*******************************************************"
+ echo "************************************************************"
+ echo "*** An error occurred during the root file system check. ***"
+ echo "*** You will now be given a chance to log into the ***"
+ echo "*** system in single-user mode to fix the problem. ***"
+ echo "*** Running 'e2fsck -v -y <partition>' might help. ***"
+ echo "************************************************************"
echo
echo "Once you exit the single-user shell, the system will reboot."
echo
@@ -82,6 +85,44 @@
echo -n "get into your machine and start looking for the problem. "
read junk;
fi
+ # okay / fs is clean, and mounted as rw
+ # This was an addition, limits vgscan to /proc thus
+ # speeding up the scan immensely.
+ /sbin/mount /proc
+
+ # Initialize Logical Volume Manager
+ /sbin/vgscan
+ /sbin/vgchange -ay
+
+ /sbin/fsck -A -a -R
+ #Check all the other filesystem, including the LVM's, excluding /
+
+ # If there was a failure, drop into single-user mode.
+ if [ ? -gt 1 ] ; then
+ echo
+ echo
+ echo "*******************************************************"
+ echo "*** An error occurred during the file system check. ***"
+ echo "*** You will now be given a chance to log into the ***"
+ echo "*** system in single-user mode to fix the problem. ***"
+ echo "*** Running 'e2fsck -v -y <partition>' might help. ***"
+ echo "*** The root filesystem is ok and mounted readwrite ***"
+ echo "*******************************************************"
+ echo
+ echo "Once you exit the single-user shell, the system will reboot."
+ echo
+
+ PS1="(Repair filesystem) #"; export PS1
+ sulogin
+
+ echo "Unmounting file systems."
+ umount -a -r
+ mount -n -o remount,ro /
+ echo "Rebooting system."
+ sleep 2
+ reboot
+ fi
+
else
echo "Testing filesystem status: read-write filesystem"
if cat /etc/fstab | grep ' / ' | grep umsdos 1> /dev/null 2> /dev/null ;
then
@@ -111,14 +152,16 @@
echo -n "Press ENTER to continue. "
read junk;
fi
+
fi

+
# remove /etc/mtab* so that mount will create it with a root entry
/bin/rm -f /etc/mtab* /etc/nologin /etc/shutdownpid

# mount file systems in fstab (and create an entry for /)
# but not NFS or SMB because TCP/IP is not yet configured
-/sbin/mount -a -v -t nonfs,nosmbfs
+/sbin/mount -a -v -t nonfs,nosmbfs,proc

# Clean up temporary files on the /var volume:
/bin/rm -f /var/run/utmp /var/run/*.pid /var/log/setup/tmp/*
--snip snip snip end of file---------------





6.6. SuSE


No changes should be necessary from 6.4 onward as LVM is included





Chapter 7. Building LVM from the Source



7.1. Make LVM library and tools


Change into the LVM directory and do a
./configure followed
by make. This will make all of the libraries and
programs.

If the need arises you can change some options with the configure
script. Do a ./configure --help to determine
which options are supported. Most of the time this will not be
necessary.

There should be no errors from the build process. If there are,
see the Reporting Errors and Bugs
on how to report this.

You are welcome to fix them and send us the patches too. Patches
are generally sent to the lvm-devel
list.




7.2. Install LVM library and tools


After the LVM source compiles properly, simply run
make install to install the LVM library and
tools onto your system.




7.3. Removing LVM library and tools


To remove the library and tools you just installed, run
make remove. You must have the original source
tree you used to install LVM to use this feature.





Chapter 8. Transitioning from previous versions of LVM to LVM 1.0.6


Transitioning from previous versions of LVM to LVM 1.0.6 should be
fairly painless. We have come up with a method to read in PV version
1 metadata (LVM 0.9.1 Beta7 and earlier) as well as PV version 2
metadata (LVM 0.9.1 Beta8 and LVM 1.0).

Warning: New PVs initialized with LVM 1.0.6 are
created with the PV version 1 on-disk structure. This means that LVM
0.9.1 Beta8 and LVM 1.0 cannot read or use PVs created with 1.0.6.


8.1. Upgrading to LVM 1.0.6 with a non-LVM root partition


There are just a few simple steps to transition this setup, but it
is still recommended that you backup your data before you try it.
You have been warned.

  1. Build LVM kernel and modules

    Follow the steps outlined in Chapter 4 -
    Chapter 5 for instructions on how to get
    and build the necessary kernel components of LVM.

  2. Build the LVM user tools

    Follow the steps in
    Chapter 7 to build and install the user tools
    for LVM.

  3. Setup your init scripts

    Make sure you have the proper init scripts setup as per
    Chapter 6.

  4. Boot into the new kernel

    Make sure your boot-loader is setup to load the new
    LVM-enhanced kernel and, if you are using LVM modules, put an
    insmod lvm-mod into your startup script OR
    extend /etc/modules.conf (formerly
    /etc/conf.modules) by adding








    alias block-major-58 lvm-mod
    alias char-major-109 lvm-mod


    to enable modprobe to load the LVM module (don't forget to
    enable kmod).
    Reboot and enjoy.





8.2. Upgrading to LVM 1.0.6 with an LVM root partition and initrd


This is relatively straightforward if you follow the steps
carefully. It is recommended you have a good backup and a suitable
rescue disk handy just in case.

The "normal" way of running an LVM root file system is
to have a single non-LVM partition called
/boot
which contains the kernel and initial RAM disk needed to start the
system. The system I upgraded was as follows:








# df

Filesystem 1k-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/rootvg/root 253871 93384 147380 39% /
/dev/hda1 17534 12944 3685 78% /boot
/dev/rootvg/home 4128448 4568 3914168 0% /home
/dev/rootvg/usr 1032088 332716 646944 34% /usr
/dev/rootvg/var 253871 31760 209004 13% /var



/boot
contains the old kernel and an initial RAM disk as well as the LILO
boot files and the following entry in
/etc/lilo.conf








# ls /boot

System.map lost+found vmlinux-2.2.16lvm
map module-info boot.0300
boot.b os2_d.b chain.b
initrd.gz

# tail /etc/lilo.conf

image=/boot/vmlinux-2.2.16lvm
label=lvm08
read-only
root=/dev/rootvg/root
initrd=/boot/initrd.gz
append="ramdisk_size=8192"




  1. Build LVM kernel and modules


    Follow the steps outlined in
    Chapter 4 - Chapter 5
    for instructions on how to get and build the necessary
    kernel components of LVM.

  2. Build the LVM user tools


    Follow the steps in
    Chapter 5 to build and install the user
    tools for LVM.

    Install the new tools. Once you have done this you cannot
    do any LVM manipulation as they are not compatible with
    the kernel you are currently running.

  3. Rename the existing initrd.gz


    This is so it doesn't get overwritten by the new one








    # mv /boot/initrd.gz /boot/initrd08.gz



  4. Edit /etc/lilo.conf


    Make the existing boot entry point to the renamed file.
    You will need to reboot using this if something goes wrong
    in the next reboot. The changed entry will look something
    like this:








    image=/boot/vmlinux-2.2.16lvm
    label=lvm08
    read-only
    root=/dev/rootvg/root
    initrd=/boot/initrd08.gz
    append="ramdisk_size=8192"



  5. Run lvmcreate_initrd to create a new initial RAM disk









    # lvmcreate_initrd 2.4.9


    Don't forget the put the new kernel version in there so
    that it picks up the correct modules.

  6. Add a new entry into /etc/lilo.conf


    This new entry is to boot the new kernel with its new
    initrd.








    image=/boot/vmlinux-2.4.9lvm
    label=lvm10
    read-only
    root=/dev/rootvg/root
    initrd=/boot/initrd.gz
    append="ramdisk_size=8192"



  7. Re-run lilo


    This will install the new boot block








    # /sbin/lilo



  8. Reboot


    When you get the LILO prompt select the new entry name (in
    this example lvm10) and your system should boot into Linux
    using the new LVM version.

    If the new kernel does not boot, then simply boot the old
    one and try to fix the problem. It may be that the new
    kernel does not have all the correct device drivers built
    into it, or that they are not available in the initrd.
    Remember that all device drivers (apart from LVM) needed
    to access the root device should be compiled into the
    kernel and not as modules.

    If you need to do any LVM manipulation when booted back
    into the old version, then simply recompile the old tools
    and install them with








    # make install


    If you do this, don't forget to install the new tools when
    you reboot into the new LVM version.


When you are happy with the new system remember to change the
``default='' entry in your lilo.conf file so that it is the default
kernel.





Chapter 9. Common Tasks


The following sections outline some common administrative tasks for an
LVM system. This is no substitute for reading the man
pages.



9.1. Initializing disks or disk partitions


Before you can use a disk or disk partition as a physical volume
you will have to initialize it:

For entire disks:

  • Run pvcreate on the disk:








    # pvcreate /dev/hdb


    This creates a volume group descripter at the start of
    disk.

  • If you get an error that LVM can't initialize a
    disk with a partition table on it, first make sure
    that the disk you are operating on is the correct
    one. If you are very sure that it is, run the
    following:












    WarningDANGEROUS
    The following commands will destroy the
    partition table on the disk being operated on.
    Be very sure it is the correct disk.










    # dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/diskname bs=1k count=1
    # blockdev --rereadpt /dev/diskname




For partitions:

  • Set the partition type to 0x8e using fdisk or some
    other similar program.

  • Run pvcreate on the partition:








    # pvcreate /dev/hdb1


    This creates a volume group descriptor at the start of
    the /dev/hdb1 partition.





9.2. Creating a volume group


Use the 'vgcreate' program:








# vgcreate my_volume_group /dev/hda1 /dev/hdb1


NOTE: If you are using devfs it is essential
to use the full devfs name of the device rather than the symlinked
name in /dev. so the above
would be:








# vgcreate my_volume_group /dev/ide/host0/bus0/target0/lun0/part1 \
/dev/ide/host0/bus0/target1/lun0/part1



You can also specify the extent size with this command if the
default of 32MB is not suitable for you with the '-s' switch. In
addition you can put some limits on the number of physical or
logical volumes the volume can have.




9.3. Activating a volume group


After rebooting the system or running
vgchange -an, you will not be able to access
your VGs and LVs. To reactivate the volume group, run:








# vgchange -a y my_volume_group





9.4. Removing a volume group


Make sure that no logical volumes are present in the volume group,
see later section for how to do this.

Deactivate the volume group:








# vgchange -a n my_volume_group


Now you actually remove the volume group:








# vgremove my_volume_group





9.5. Adding physical volumes to a volume group


Use 'vgextend' to add an initialized physical volume to an existing
volume group.








# vgextend my_volume_group /dev/hdc1
^^^^^^^^^ new physical volume





9.6. Removing physical volumes from a volume group


Make sure that the physical volume isn't used by any logical
volumes by using then 'pvdisplay' command:








# pvdisplay /dev/hda1

--- Physical volume ---
PV Name /dev/hda1
VG Name myvg
PV Size 1.95 GB / NOT usable 4 MB [LVM: 122 KB]
PV# 1
PV Status available
Allocatable yes (but full)
Cur LV 1
PE Size (KByte) 4096
Total PE 499
Free PE 0
Allocated PE 499
PV UUID Sd44tK-9IRw-SrMC-MOkn-76iP-iftz-OVSen7



If the physical volume is still used you will have to migrate the
data to another physical volume.

Then use 'vgreduce' to remove the physical volume:








# vgreduce my_volume_group /dev/hda1





9.7. Creating a logical volume


Decide which physical volumes you want the logical volume to be
allocated on, use 'vgdisplay' and 'pvdisplay' to help you decide.

To create a 1500MB linear LV named 'testlv' and its block
device special '/dev/testvg/testlv':








# lvcreate -L1500 -ntestlv testvg


To create a 100 LE large logical volume with 2 stripes and
stripesize 4 KB.








# lvcreate -i2 -I4 -l100 -nanothertestlv testvg


If you want to create an LV that uses the entire VG, use vgdisplay
to find the "Total PE" size, then use that when
running lvcreate.








# vgdisplay testvg | grep "Total PE"
Total PE 10230
# lvcreate -l 10230 testvg -n mylv


This will create an LV called
mylv filling the
testvg VG.



9.8. Removing a logical volume


A logical volume must be closed before it can be removed:








# umount /dev/myvg/homevol
# lvremove /dev/myvg/homevol

lvremove -- do you really want to remove "/dev/myvg/homevol"? [y/n]: y
lvremove -- doing automatic backup of volume group "myvg"
lvremove -- logical volume "/dev/myvg/homevol" successfully removed






9.9. Extending a logical volume


To extend a logical volume you simply tell the lvextend command how
much you want to increase the size. You can specify how much to
grow the volume, or how large you want it to grow to:








# lvextend -L12G /dev/myvg/homevol
lvextend -- extending logical volume "/dev/myvg/homevol" to 12 GB
lvextend -- doing automatic backup of volume group "myvg"
lvextend -- logical volume "/dev/myvg/homevol" successfully extended



will extend /dev/myvg/homevol to 12 Gigabytes.








# lvextend -L+1G /dev/myvg/homevol
lvextend -- extending logical volume "/dev/myvg/homevol" to 13 GB
lvextend -- doing automatic backup of volume group "myvg"
lvextend -- logical volume "/dev/myvg/homevol" successfully extended



will add another gigabyte to /dev/myvg/homevol.

After you have extended the logical volume it is necessary to
increase the file system size to match. how you do this depends on
the file system you are using.

By default, most file system resizing tools will increase the size
of the file system to be the size of the underlying logical volume
so you don't need to worry about specifying the same size for each
of the two commands.

  1. ext2


    Unless you have patched your kernel with the ext2online patch
    it is necessary to unmount the file system before resizing
    it.








    # umount /dev/myvg/homevol/dev/myvg/homevol
    # resize2fs /dev/myvg/homevol
    # mount /dev/myvg/homevol /home



    If you don't have e2fsprogs 1.19 or later, you can download
    the ext2resize command from
    ext2resize.sourceforge.net
    and use that:








    # umount /dev/myvg/homevol/dev/myvg/homevol
    # resize2fs /dev/myvg/homevol
    # mount /dev/myvg/homevol /home



    For ext2 there is an easier way. LVM ships with a utility
    called e2fsadm which does the lvextend and resize2fs for you
    (it can also do file system shrinking, see the next section)
    so the single command








    # e2fsadm -L+1G /dev/myvg/homevol


    is equivalent to the two commands:








    # lvextend -L+1G /dev/myvg/homevol
    # resize2fs /dev/myvg/homevol















    NoteNote
    You will still need to unmount the file system before
    running e2fsadm.


  2. reiserfs


    Reiserfs file systems can be resized when mounted or
    unmounted as you prefer:

    • Online:








      # resize_reiserfs -f /dev/myvg/homevol



    • Offline:








      # umount /dev/myvg/homevol
      # resize_reiserfs /dev/myvg/homevol
      # mount -treiserfs /dev/myvg/homevol /home






  3. xfs


    XFS file systems must be mounted to be resized and the
    mount-point is specified rather than the device name.








    # xfs_growfs /home







9.10. Reducing a logical volume


Logical volumes can be reduced in size as well as increased.
However, it is very important to remember to
reduce the size of the file system or whatever is residing in the
volume before shrinking the volume itself, otherwise you risk
losing data.

  1. ext2


    If you are using ext2 as the file system then you can use the
    e2fsadm command mentioned earlier to take care of both the
    file system and volume resizing as follows:








    # umount /home
    # e2fsadm -L-1G /dev/myvg/homevol
    # mount /home



    If you prefer to do this manually you must know the new size
    of the volume in blocks and use the following commands:








    # umount /home
    # resize2fs /dev/myvg/homevol 524288
    # lvreduce -L-1G /dev/myvg/homevol
    # mount /home




  2. reiserfs


    Reiserfs seems to prefer to be unmounted when shrinking








    # umount /home
    # resize_reiserfs -s-1G /dev/myvg/homevol
    # lvreduce -L-1G /dev/myvg/homevol
    # mount -treiserfs /dev/myvg/homevol /home




  3. xfs


    There is no way to shrink XFS file systems.





9.11. Migrating data off of a physical volume


To take a disk out of service it must first have all of its active
physical extents moved to one or more of the remaining disks in the
volume group. There must be enough free physical extents in the
remaining PVs to hold the extents to be copied from the old disk.
For further detail see Section 11.5.





Chapter 10. Disk partitioning



10.1. Multiple partitions on the same disk


LVM allows you to create PVs (physical volumes) out of almost any
block device so, for example, the following are all valid commands
and will work quite happily in an LVM environment:








# pvcreate /dev/sda1
# pvcreate /dev/sdf
# pvcreate /dev/hda8
# pvcreate /dev/hda6
# pvcreate /dev/md1



In a "normal" production system it is recommended that
only one PV exists on a single real disk, for the following
reasons:

  • Administrative convenience

    It's easier to keep track of the hardware in a system if
    each real disk only appears once. This becomes
    particularly true if a disk fails.

  • To avoid striping performance problems

    LVM can't tell that two PVs are on the same physical disk,
    so if you create a striped LV then the stripes could be on
    different partitions on the same disk resulting in a
    decrease in performance
    rather than an increase.


However it may be desirable to do this for some reasons:

  • Migration of existing system to LVM

    On a system with few disks it may be necessary to move
    data around partitions to do the conversion (see
    Section 11.8)

  • Splitting one big disk between Volume Groups

    If you have a very large disk and want to have more than
    one volume group for administrative purposes then it is
    necessary to partition the drive into more than one area.


If you do have a disk with more than one partition and both of
those partitions are in the same volume group, take care to specify
which partitions are to be included in a logical volume when
creating striped volumes.

The recommended method of partitioning a disk is to create a single
partition that covers the whole disk. This avoids any nasty
accidents with whole disk drive device nodes and prevents the
kernel warning about unknown partition types at boot-up.




10.2. Sun disk labels


You need to be especially careful on SPARC systems where the disks
have Sun disk labels on them.

The normal layout for a Sun disk label is for the first partition
to start at block zero of the disk, thus the first partition also
covers the area containing the disk label itself. This works fine
for ext2 filesystems (and is essential for booting using SILO) but
such partitions should not be used for LVM. This is because LVM
starts writing at the very start of the device and will overwrite
the disk label.

If you want to use a disk with a Sun disklabel with LVM, make sure
that the partition you are going to use starts at cylinder 1 or
higher.





Chapter 11. Recipes


This section details several different "recipes" for
setting up lvm. The hope is that the reader will adapt these recipes
to their own system and needs.


11.1. Setting up LVM on three SCSI disks


For this recipe, the setup has three SCSI disks that will be put
into a logical volume using LVM. The disks are at /dev/sda,
/dev/sdb, and /dev/sdc.


11.1.1. Preparing the disks


Before you can use a disk in a volume group you will have to
prepare it:












WarningWarning!
The following will destroy any data on /dev/sda, /dev/sdb,
and /dev/sdc


Run pvcreate on the disks








# pvcreate /dev/sda
# pvcreate /dev/sdb
# pvcreate /dev/sdc



This creates a volume group descriptor area (VGDA) at the start
of the disks.



11.1.2. Setup a Volume Group



  1. Create a volume group








    # vgcreate my_volume_group /dev/sda /dev/sdb /dev/sdc/



  2. Run vgdisplay to verify volume group








    # vgdisplay
    # vgdisplay
    --- Volume Group ---
    VG Name my_volume_group
    VG Access read/write
    VG Status available/resizable
    VG # 1
    MAX LV 256
    Cur LV 0
    Open LV 0
    MAX LV Size 255.99 GB
    Max PV 256
    Cur PV 3
    Act PV 3
    VG Size 1.45 GB
    PE Size 4 MB
    Total PE 372
    Alloc PE / Size 0 / 0
    Free PE / Size 372/ 1.45 GB
    VG UUID nP2PY5-5TOS-hLx0-FDu0-2a6N-f37x-0BME0Y



    The most important things to verify are that the first
    three items are correct and that the VG Size item is the
    proper size for the amount of space in all four of your
    disks.





11.1.3. Creating the Logical Volume


If the volume group looks correct, it is time to create a
logical volume on top of the volume group.

You can make the logical volume any size you like. (It is
similar to a partition on a non LVM setup.) For this example we
will create just a single logical volume of size 1GB on the
volume group. We will not use striping because it is not
currently possible to add a disk to a stripe set after the
logical volume is created.








# lvcreate -L1G -nmy_logical_volume my_volume_group
lvcreate -- doing automatic backup of "my_volume_group"
lvcreate -- logical volume "/dev/my_volume_group/my_logical_volume" successfully created






11.1.4. Create the File System


Create an ext2 file system on the logical volume








# mke2fs /dev/my_volume_group/my_logical_volume
mke2fs 1.19, 13-Jul-2000 for EXT2 FS 0.5b, 95/08/09
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
131072 inodes, 262144 blocks
13107 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
9 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
16384 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
32768, 98304, 163840, 229376
 

Writing inode tables: done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done





11.1.5. Test the File System


Mount the logical volume and check to make sure everything looks
correct








# mount /dev/my_volume_group/my_logical_volume /mnt
# df

Filesystem 1k-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/hda1 1311552 628824 616104 51% /
/dev/my_volume_group/my_logical_volume
1040132 20 987276 0% /mnt



If everything worked properly, you should now have a logical
volume with and ext2 file system mounted at
/mnt.





11.2. Setting up LVM on three SCSI disks with striping


For this recipe, the setup has three SCSI disks that will be put
into a logical volume using LVM. The disks are at /dev/sda,
/dev/sdb, and /dev/sdc.












NoteNote
It is not currently possible to add a disk to a striped
logical volume. Do not use LV striping if you wish to be
able to do so.




11.2.1. Preparing the disk partitions


Before you can use a disk in a volume group you will have to
prepare it:












WarningWarning!
The following will destroy any data on /dev/sda, /dev/sdb,
and /dev/sdc


Run pvcreate on the disks:








# pvcreate /dev/sda
# pvcreate /dev/sdb
# pvcreate /dev/sdc



This creates a volume group descriptor area (VGDA) at the start
of the disks.



11.2.2. Setup a Volume Group



  1. Create a volume group








    # vgcreate my_volume_group /dev/sda /dev/sdb /dev/sdc



  2. Run vgdisplay to verify volume group








    # vgdisplay
    --- Volume Group ---
    VG Name my_volume_group
    VG Access read/write
    VG Status available/resizable
    VG # 1
    MAX LV 256
    Cur LV 0
    Open LV 0
    MAX LV Size 255.99 GB
    Max PV 256
    Cur PV 3
    Act PV 3
    VG Size 1.45 GB
    PE Size 4 MB
    Total PE 372
    Alloc PE / Size 0 / 0
    Free PE / Size 372/ 1.45 GB
    VG UUID nP2PY5-5TOS-hLx0-FDu0-2a6N-f37x-0BME0Y



    The most important things to verify are that the first
    three items are correct and that the VG Size item is the
    proper size for the amount of space in all four of your
    disks.





11.2.3. Creating the Logical Volume


If the volume group looks correct, it is time to create a
logical volume on top of the volume group.

You can make the logical volume any size you like (up to the
size of the VG you are creating it on; it is similar to a
partition on a non LVM setup). For this example we will create
just a single logical volume of size 1GB on the volume group.
The logical volume will be a striped set using for the 4k stripe
size. This should increase the performance of the logical
volume.








# lvcreate -i3 -I4 -L1G -nmy_logical_volume my_volume_group
lvcreate -- rounding 1048576 KB to stripe boundary size 1056768 KB / 258 PE
lvcreate -- doing automatic backup of "my_volume_group"
lvcreate -- logical volume "/dev/my_volume_group/my_logical_volume" successfully created















NoteNote
If you create the logical volume with a '-i2' you will only
use two of the disks in your volume group. This is useful if
you want to create two logical volumes out of the same
physical volume, but we will not touch that in this recipe.





11.2.4. Create the File System


Create an ext2 file system on the logical volume








# mke2fs /dev/my_volume_group/my_logical_volume
mke2fs 1.19, 13-Jul-2000 for EXT2 FS 0.5b, 95/08/09
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
132192 inodes, 264192 blocks
13209 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
9 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
14688 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
32768, 98304, 163840, 229376
 

Writing inode tables: done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done





11.2.5. Test the File System


Mount the file system on the logical volume








# mount /dev/my_volume_group/my_logical_volume /mnt


and check to make sure everything looks correct








# df
Filesystem 1k-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/hda1 1311552 628824 616104 51% /
/dev/my_volume_group/my_logical_volume
1040132 20 987276 0% /mnt



If everything worked properly, you should now have a logical
volume mounted at /mnt.




11.3. Add a new disk to a multi-disk SCSI system



11.3.1. Current situation


A data centre machine has 6 disks attached as follows:








# pvscan
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sda" of VG "dev" [1.95 GB / 0 free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sdb" of VG "sales" [1.95 GB / 0 free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sdc" of VG "ops" [1.95 GB / 44 MB free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sdd" of VG "dev" [1.95 GB / 0 free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sde1" of VG "ops" [996 MB / 52 MB free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sde2" of VG "sales" [996 MB / 944 MB free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sdf1" of VG "ops" [996 MB / 0 free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sdf2" of VG "dev" [996 MB / 72 MB free]
pvscan -- total: 8 [11.72 GB] / in use: 8 [11.72 GB] / in no VG: 0 [0]

 

# df
Filesystem 1k-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/dev/cvs 1342492 516468 757828 41% /mnt/dev/cvs
/dev/dev/users 2064208 2060036 4172 100% /mnt/dev/users
/dev/dev/build 1548144 1023041 525103 66% /mnt/dev/build
/dev/ops/databases 2890692 2302417 588275 79% /mnt/ops/databases
/dev/sales/users 2064208 871214 1192994 42% /mnt/sales/users
/dev/ops/batch 1032088 897122 134966 86% /mnt/ops/batch



As you can see the "dev" and "ops" groups are getting full so
a new disk is purchased and added to the system. It becomes
/dev/sdg.



11.3.2. Prepare the disk partitions


The new disk is to be shared equally between ops and dev so
it is partitioned into two physical volumes /dev/sdg1 and
/dev/sdg2 :








# fdisk /dev/sdg

Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun or SGI
disklabel Building a new DOS disklabel. Changes will remain in memory
only, until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the
previous content won't be recoverable.

 

Command (m for help): n
Command action
e extended
p primary partition (1-4)

p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-1000, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-1000, default 1000): 500

Command (m for help): n
Command action
e extended
p primary partition (1-4)

p
Partition number (1-4): 2
First cylinder (501-1000, default 501):
Using default value 501
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (501-1000, default 1000):
Using default value 1000

Command (m for help): t
Partition number (1-4): 1
Hex code (type L to list codes): 8e
Changed system type of partition 1 to 8e (Unknown)

Command (m for help): t
Partition number (1-4): 2
Hex code (type L to list codes): 8e
Changed system type of partition 2 to 8e (Unknown)

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

WARNING: If you have created or modified any DOS 6.x partitions,
please see the fdisk manual page for additional information.





Next physical volumes are created on this partition:








# pvcreate /dev/sdg1
pvcreate -- physical volume "/dev/sdg1" successfully created
 

# pvcreate /dev/sdg2
pvcreate -- physical volume "/dev/sdg2" successfully created





11.3.3. Add the new disks to the volume groups


The volumes are then added to the dev and ops volume groups:








# vgextend ops /dev/sdg1
vgextend -- INFO: maximum logical volume size is 255.99 Gigabyte
vgextend -- doing automatic backup of volume group "ops"
vgextend -- volume group "ops" successfully extended

 

# vgextend dev /dev/sdg2
vgextend -- INFO: maximum logical volume size is 255.99 Gigabyte
vgextend -- doing automatic backup of volume group "dev"
vgextend -- volume group "dev" successfully extended


# pvscan
pvscan -- reading all physical volumes (this may take a while...)
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sda" of VG "dev" [1.95 GB / 0 free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sdb" of VG "sales" [1.95 GB / 0 free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sdc" of VG "ops" [1.95 GB / 44 MB free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sdd" of VG "dev" [1.95 GB / 0 free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sde1" of VG "ops" [996 MB / 52 MB free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sde2" of VG "sales" [996 MB / 944 MB free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sdf1" of VG "ops" [996 MB / 0 free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sdf2" of VG "dev" [996 MB / 72 MB free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sdg1" of VG "ops" [996 MB / 996 MB free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sdg2" of VG "dev" [996 MB / 996 MB free]
pvscan -- total: 10 [13.67 GB] / in use: 10 [13.67 GB] / in no VG: 0 [0]






11.3.4. Extend the file systems


The next thing to do is to extend the file systems so that the
users can make use of the extra space.

There are tools to allow online-resizing of ext2 file systems
but here we take the safe route and unmount the two file systems
before resizing them:








# umount /mnt/ops/batch
# umount /mnt/dev/users



We then use the e2fsadm command to resize the logical volume and
the ext2 file system on one operation. We are using ext2resize
instead of resize2fs (which is the default command for e2fsadm)
so we define the environment variable E2FSADM_RESIZE_CMD to tell
e2fsadm to use that command.








# export E2FSADM_RESIZE_CMD=ext2resize
# e2fsadm /dev/ops/batch -L+500M

e2fsck 1.18, 11-Nov-1999 for EXT2 FS 0.5b, 95/08/09
Pass 1: Checking inodes, blocks, and sizes
Pass 2: Checking directory structure
Pass 3: Checking directory connectivity
Pass 4: Checking reference counts
Pass 5: Checking group summary information
/dev/ops/batch: 11/131072 files (0.0<!-- non-contiguous), 4127/262144 blocks
lvextend -- extending logical volume "/dev/ops/batch" to 1.49 GB
lvextend -- doing automatic backup of volume group "ops"
lvextend -- logical volume "/dev/ops/batch" successfully extended
 

ext2resize v1.1.15 - 2000/08/08 for EXT2FS 0.5b
e2fsadm -- ext2fs in logical volume "/dev/ops/batch" successfully extended to 1.49 GB


# e2fsadm /dev/dev/users -L+900M
e2fsck 1.18, 11-Nov-1999 for EXT2 FS 0.5b, 95/08/09
Pass 1: Checking inodes, blocks, and sizes
Pass 2: Checking directory structure
Pass 3: Checking directory connectivity
Pass 4: Checking reference counts
Pass 5: Checking group summary information
/dev/dev/users: 12/262144 files (0.0% non-contiguous), 275245/524288 blocks
lvextend -- extending logical volume "/dev/dev/users" to 2.88 GB
lvextend -- doing automatic backup of volume group "dev"
lvextend -- logical volume "/dev/dev/users" successfully extended

ext2resize v1.1.15 - 2000/08/08 for EXT2FS 0.5b
e2fsadm -- ext2fs in logical volume "/dev/dev/users" successfully extended to 2.88 GB






11.3.5. Remount the extended volumes


We can now remount the file systems and see that the is plenty
of space.








# mount /dev/ops/batch
# mount /dev/dev/users
# df

Filesystem 1k-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/dev/cvs 1342492 516468 757828 41% /mnt/dev/cvs
/dev/dev/users 2969360 2060036 909324 69% /mnt/dev/users
/dev/dev/build 1548144 1023041 525103 66% /mnt/dev/build
/dev/ops/databases 2890692 2302417 588275 79% /mnt/ops/databases
/dev/sales/users 2064208 871214 1192994 42% /mnt/sales/users
/dev/ops/batch 1535856 897122 638734 58% /mnt/ops/batch







11.4. Taking a Backup Using Snapshots


Following on from the previous example we now want to use the extra
space in the "ops" volume group to make a database backup every
evening. To ensure that the data that goes onto the tape is
consistent we use an LVM snapshot logical volume.

This type of volume is a read-only copy of another volume that
contains all the data that was in the volume at the time the
snapshot was created. This means we can back up that volume without
having to worry about data being changed while the backup is going
on, and we don't have to take the database volume offline while the
backup is taking place.


11.4.1. Create the snapshot volume


There is a little over 500 Megabytes of free space in the "ops"
volume group, so we will use all of it to allocate space for the
snapshot logical volume. A snapshot volume can be as large or a
small as you like but it must be large enough to hold all the
changes that are likely to happen to the original volume during
the lifetime of the snapshot. So here, allowing 500 megabytes of
changes to the database volume which should be plenty.








# lvcreate -L592M -s -n dbbackup /dev/ops/databases
lvcreate -- WARNING: the snapshot must be disabled if it gets full
lvcreate -- INFO: using default snapshot chunk size of 64 KB for "/dev/ops/dbbackup"
lvcreate -- doing automatic backup of "ops"
lvcreate -- logical volume "/dev/ops/dbbackup" successfully created

 










NoteIf the snapshot is of an XFS filesystem, the xfs_freeze
command should be used to quiesce the filesystem before
creating the snapshot. (if the filesystem is mounted)








# xfs_freeze -f /mnt/point; lvcreate -L592M -s -n dbbackup /dev/ops/databases; xfs_freeze -u /mnt/point
















WarningFull snapshot are automatically disabled
If the snapshot logical volume becomes full it will become
unusable so it is vitally important to allocate enough space.





11.4.2. Mount the snapshot volume


We can now create a mount-point and mount the volume








# mkdir /mnt/ops/dbbackup
# mount /dev/ops/dbbackup /mnt/ops/dbbackup

mount: block device /dev/ops/dbbackup is write-protected, mounting read-only


If you are using XFS as the filesystem you will need to add the
nouuid option
to the mount command:








# mount /dev/ops/dbbackup /mnt/ops/dbbackup -onouuid,ro










NotePreviously, the norecovery option was suggested to allow the
mounting of
XFS snapshots. It has been recommended not to use this
option, but to instead use xfs_freeze to quiesce the
filesystem before creating the snapshot.





11.4.3. Do the backup


I assume you will have a more sophisticated backup strategy than
this!








# tar -cf /dev/rmt0 /mnt/ops/dbbackup
tar: Removing leading `/' from member names





11.4.4. Remove the snapshot


When the backup has finished you can now unmount the volume and
remove it from the system. You should remove snapshot volume
when you have finished with them because they take a copy of all
data written to the original volume and this can hurt
performance.








# umount /mnt/ops/dbbackup
# lvremove /dev/ops/dbbackup

lvremove -- do you really want to remove "/dev/ops/dbbackup"? [y/n]: y
lvremove -- doing automatic backup of volume group "ops"
lvremove -- logical volume "/dev/ops/dbbackup" successfully removed







11.5. Removing an Old Disk


Say you have an old IDE drive on /dev/hdb. You want to remove that
old disk but a lot of files are on it.












CautionBackup Your System
You should always backup your system before attempting a pvmove
operation.




11.5.1. Distributing Old Extents to Existing Disks in Volume Group


If you have enough free extents on the other disks in the volume
group, you have it easy. Simply run








# pvmove /dev/hdb
pvmove -- moving physical extents in active volume group "dev"
pvmove -- WARNING: moving of active logical volumes may cause data loss!

pvmove -- do you want to continue? [y/n] y
pvmove -- 249 extents of physical volume "/dev/hdb" successfully moved


This will move the allocated physical extents from /dev/hdb onto
the rest of the disks in the volume group.












Notepvmove is Slow
Be aware that pvmove is quite slow as it has to copy the
contents of a disk block by block to one or more disks. If you
want more steady status reports from pvmove, use the
-v flag.




11.5.1.1. Remove the unused disk


We can now remove the old IDE disk from the volume group.








# vgreduce dev /dev/hdb
vgreduce -- doing automatic backup of volume group "dev"
vgreduce -- volume group "dev" successfully reduced by physical volume:
vgreduce -- /dev/hdb



The drive can now be either physically removed when the
machine is next powered down or reallocated to other users.




11.5.2. Distributing Old Extents to a New Replacement Disk


If you do not have enough free physical extents to distribute
the old physical extents to, you will have to add a disk to the
volume group and move the extents to it.


11.5.2.1. Prepare the disk


First, you need to pvcreate the new disk to make it available
to LVM. In this recipe we show that you don't need to
partition a disk to be able to use it.








# pvcreate /dev/sdf
pvcreate -- physical volume "/dev/sdf" successfully created





11.5.2.2. Add it to the volume group


As developers use a lot of disk space this is a good volume
group to add it into.








# vgextend dev /dev/sdf
vgextend -- INFO: maximum logical volume size is 255.99 Gigabyte
vgextend -- doing automatic backup of volume group "dev"
vgextend -- volume group "dev" successfully extended






11.5.2.3. Move the data


Next we move the data from the old disk onto the new one.
Note that it is not necessary to unmount the file system
before doing this. Although it is *highly* recommended that
you do a full backup before attempting this operation in case
of a power outage or some other problem that may interrupt
it. The pvmove command can take a considerable amount of time
to complete and it also exacts a performance hit on the two
volumes so, although it isn't necessary, it is advisable to
do this when the volumes are not too busy.








# pvmove /dev/hdb /dev/sdf
pvmove -- moving physical extents in active volume group "dev"
pvmove -- WARNING: moving of active logical volumes may cause data loss!

pvmove -- do you want to continue? [y/n] y
pvmove -- 249 extents of physical volume "/dev/hdb" successfully moved





11.5.2.4. Remove the unused disk


We can now remove the old IDE disk from the volume group.








# vgreduce dev /dev/hdb
vgreduce -- doing automatic backup of volume group "dev"
vgreduce -- volume group "dev" successfully reduced by physical volume:
vgreduce -- /dev/hdb



The drive can now be either physically removed when the
machine is next powered down or reallocated to some other
users.





11.6. Moving a volume group to another system


It is quite easy to move a whole volume group to another system if,
for example, a user department acquires a new server. To do this we
use the vgexport and vgimport commands.


11.6.1. Unmount the file system


First, make sure that no users are accessing files on the active
volume, then unmount it








# unmount /mnt/design/users





11.6.2. Mark the volume group inactive


Marking the volume group inactive removes it from the kernel and
prevents any further activity on it.








# vgchange -an design
vgchange -- volume group "design" successfully deactivated





11.6.3. Export the volume group


It is now necessary to export the volume group. This prevents it
from being accessed on the ``old'' host system and prepares it
to be removed.








# vgexport design
vgexport -- volume group "design" sucessfully exported


When the machine is next shut down, the disk can be unplugged
and then connected to it's new machine



11.6.4. Import the volume group


When plugged into the new system it becomes /dev/sdb so an
initial pvscan shows:








# pvscan
pvscan -- reading all physical volumes (this may take a while...)
pvscan -- inactive PV "/dev/sdb1" is in EXPORTED VG "design" [996 MB / 996 MB free]
pvscan -- inactive PV "/dev/sdb2" is in EXPORTED VG "design" [996 MB / 244 MB free]
pvscan -- total: 2 [1.95 GB] / in use: 2 [1.95 GB] / in no VG: 0 [0]



We can now import the volume group (which also activates it) and
mount the file system.








# vgimport design /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdb2
vgimport -- doing automatic backup of volume group "design"
vgimport -- volume group "design" successfully imported and activated






11.6.5. Mount the file system










# mkdir -p /mnt/design/users
# mount /dev/design/users /mnt/design/users



The file system is now available for use.





11.7. Splitting a volume group


There is a new group of users "design" to add to the system. One
way of dealing with this is to create a new volume group to hold
their data. There are no new disks but there is plenty of free
space on the existing disks that can be reallocated.


11.7.1. Determine free space










# pvscan
pvscan -- reading all physical volumes (this may take a while...)
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sda" of VG "dev" [1.95 GB / 0 free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sdb" of VG "sales" [1.95 GB / 1.27 GB free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sdc" of VG "ops" [1.95 GB / 564 MB free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sdd" of VG "dev" [1.95 GB / 0 free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sde" of VG "ops" [1.95 GB / 1.9 GB free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sdf" of VG "dev" [1.95 GB / 1.33 GB free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sdg1" of VG "ops" [996 MB / 432 MB free]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/sdg2" of VG "dev" [996 MB / 632 MB free]
pvscan -- total: 8 [13.67 GB] / in use: 8 [13.67 GB] / in no VG: 0 [0]



We decide to reallocate /dev/sdg1 and /dev/sdg2 to design so
first we have to move the physical extents into the free areas
of the other volumes (in this case /dev/sdf for volume group dev
and /dev/sde for volume group ops).




11.7.2. Move data off the disks to be used


Some space is still used on the chosen volumes so it is
necessary to move that used space off onto some others.

Move all the used physical extents from /dev/sdg1 to /dev/sde
and from /dev/sdg2 to /dev/sde








# pvmove /dev/sdg1 /dev/sde
pvmove -- moving physical extents in active volume group "ops"
pvmove -- WARNING: moving of active logical volumes may cause data loss!

pvmove -- do you want to continue? [y/n] y
pvmove -- doing automatic backup of volume group "ops"
pvmove -- 141 extents of physical volume "/dev/sdg1" successfully moved

 

# pvmove /dev/sdg2 /dev/sdf
pvmove -- moving physical extents in active volume group "dev"
pvmove -- WARNING: moving of active logical volumes may cause data loss!

pvmove -- do you want to continue? [y/n] y
pvmove -- doing automatic backup of volume group "dev"
pvmove -- 91 extents of physical volume "/dev/sdg2" successfully moved






11.7.3. Create the new volume group


Now, split /dev/sdg2 from dev and add it into a new group called
"design". it is possible to do this using vgreduce and vgcreate
but the vgsplit command combines the two.








# vgsplit dev design /dev/sdg2
vgsplit -- doing automatic backup of volume group "dev"
vgsplit -- doing automatic backup of volume group "design"
vgsplit -- volume group "dev" successfully split into "dev" and "design"






11.7.4. Remove remaining volume


Next, remove /dev/sdg1 from ops and add it into design.








# vgreduce ops /dev/sdg1
vgreduce -- doing automatic backup of volume group "ops"
vgreduce -- volume group "ops" successfully reduced by physical volume:
vgreduce -- /dev/sdg1

 

# vgextend design /dev/sdg1
vgextend -- INFO: maximum logical volume size is 255.99 Gigabyte
vgextend -- doing automatic backup of volume group "design"
vgextend -- volume group "design" successfully extended






11.7.5. Create new logical volume


Now create a logical volume. Rather than allocate all of the
available space, leave some spare in case it is needed
elsewhere.








# lvcreate -L750M -n users design
lvcreate -- rounding up size to physical extent boundary "752 MB"
lvcreate -- doing automatic backup of "design"
lvcreate -- logical volume "/dev/design/users" successfully created






11.7.6. Make a file system on the volume










# mke2fs /dev/design/users
mke2fs 1.18, 11-Nov-1999 for EXT2 FS 0.5b, 95/08/09
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
96384 inodes, 192512 blocks
9625 blocks (5.00<!-- ) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
6 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
16064 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
32768, 98304, 163840
 

Writing inode tables: done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done





11.7.7. Mount the new volume










# mkdir -p /mnt/design/users mount /dev/design/users /mnt/design/users/


It's also a good idea to add an entry for this file system in
your /etc/fstab file as follows:








/dev/design/user
/mnt/design/users ext2 defaults 1 2






11.8. Converting a root filesystem to
LVM














CautionBackup Your System
It is strongly recommended that you take a full backup of your
system before attempting to convert to root on LVM.














WarningUpgrade Complications
Having your root filesystem on LVM can significantly complicate
upgrade procedures (depending on your distribution) so it should
not be attempted lightly. Particularly, you must consider how
you will insure that the LVM kernel module (if you do not have
LVM compiled into the kernel) as well as the vgscan/vgchange
tools are available before, during, and after the upgrade.














WarningRecovery Complications
Having your root filesystem on LVM can significantly complicate
recovery of damaged filesystems. If you lose your initrd, it
will be very difficult to boot your system. You will need to
have a recover disk that contains the kernel, LVM module, and
LVM tools, as well as any tools necessary to recover a
damaged filesystem.
Be sure to make regular backups and have an up-to-date
alternative boot method that allows for recovery of LVM.


In this example the whole system was installed in a single root
partition with the exception of /boot. The system had a 2 gig disk
partitioned as:








/dev/hda1 /boot
/dev/hda2 swap
/dev/hda3 /


The / partition covered all of the disk not used by /boot and swap.
An important prerequisite of this procedure is that the root
partition is less that half full (so that a copy of it can be
created in a logical volume). If this is not the case then a
second disk drive should be used. The procedure in that case is
similar but there is no need to shrink the existing root partition
and /dev/hda4 should be replaced with (eg) /dev/hdb1 in the
examples.

To do this it is easiest to use GNU parted. This software allows
you to grow and shrink partitions that contain filesystems. It is
possible to use resize2fs and fdisk to do this but GNU parted makes
it much less prone to error. It may be included in your
distribution, if not you can download it from
ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/parted.

Once you have parted on your system AND YOU HAVE BACKED THE SYSTEM
UP:


11.8.1. Boot single user


Boot into single user mode (type linux S at
the LILO prompt) This is important. Booting single-user ensures
that the root filesystem is mounted read-only and no programs
are accessing the disk.




11.8.2. Run Parted


Run parted to shrink the root partition Do this so there is room
on the disk for a complete copy of it in a logical volume. In
this example a 1.8 gig partition is shrunk to 1 gigabyte
This displays the sizes and names of the partitions on the disk








# parted /dev/hda
(parted) p
.
.
.


Now resize the partition:








(parted) resize 3 145 999


The first number here the partition number (hda3), the second is
the same starting position that hda3 currently has. Do not
change this. The last number should make the partition around
half the size it currently is.
Create a new partition








(parted) mkpart primary ext2 1000 1999


This makes a new partition to hold the initial LVM data. It
should start just beyond the newly shrunk hda3 and finish at the
end of the disk.
Quit parted








(parted) q





11.8.3. Reboot


Reboot the system




11.8.4. Verify kernel config options


Make sure that the kernel you are currently running works with
LVM and has CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM and CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD set in
the config file.




11.8.5. Adjust partition type


Change the partition type on the newly created partition from
Linux to LVM (8e). Parted doesn't understand LVM partitions so
this has to be done using fdisk.








# fdisk /dev/hda
Command (m for help): t
Partition number (1-4): 4
Hex code (type L to list codes): 8e
Changed system type of partition 4 to 8e (Unknown)
Command (m for help): w





11.8.6. Set up LVM for the new scheme



  • Initialize LVM (vgscan)








    # vgscan



  • Make the new partition into a PV








    # pvcreate /dev/hda4



  • create a new volume group








    # vgcreate vg /dev/hda4



  • Create a logical volume to hold the new root.








    # lvcreate -L250M -n root vg







11.8.7. Create the Filesystem


Make a filesystem in the logical volume and copy the root files
onto it.








# mke2fs /dev/vg/root
# mount /dev/vg/root /mnt/
# find / -xdev | cpio -pvmd /mnt






11.8.8. Update /etc/fstab


Edit /mnt/etc/fstab on the new root so that / is mounted on
/dev/vg/root. For example:








/dev/hda3 / ext2 defaults 1 1


becomes:








/dev/vg/root / ext2 defaults 1 1





11.8.9. Create an LVM initial RAM disk










# lvmcreate_initrd


Make sure you note the name that lvmcreate_initrd calls the
initrd image. It should be in /boot.




11.8.10. Update /etc/lilo.conf


Add an entry in /etc/lilo.conf for LVM.
This should look similar to the following:








image = /boot/KERNEL_IMAGE_NAME
label = lvm
root = /dev/vg/root
initrd = /boot/INITRD_IMAGE_NAME
ramdisk = 8192


Where KERNEL_IMAGE_NAME is the name of your LVM enabled kernel,
and INITRD_IMAGE_NAME is the name of the initrd image created by
lvmcreate_initrd. The ramdisk line may need to be increased if
you have a large LVM configuration, but 8192 should suffice for
most users. The default ramdisk size is 4096. If in doubt check
the output from the lvmcreate_initrd command, the line that
says:








lvmcreate_initrd -- making loopback file (6189 kB)


and make the ramdisk the size given in brackets.
You should copy this new lilo.conf onto /etc in the new root fs
as well.








# cp /etc/lilo.conf /mnt/etc/





11.8.11. Run LILO to write the new boot sector










# lilo





11.8.12. Reboot to lvm


Reboot - at the LILO prompt type "lvm"
The system should reboot into Linux using the newly created
Logical Volume.

If that worked then you should make lvm the default LILO boot
destination by adding the line








default=lvm


in the first section of /etc/lilo.conf
If it did not work then reboot normally and try to diagnose the
problem. It could be a typing error in lilo.conf or LVM not
being available in the initial RAM disk or its kernel. Examine
the message produced at boot time carefully.




11.8.13. Add remainder of disk


Add the rest of the disk into LVM When you are happy with this
setup you can then add the old root partition to LVM and spread
out over the disk.

First set the partition type to 8e(LVM)








# fdisk /dev/hda
 

Command (m for help): t
Partition number (1-4): 3
Hex code (type L to list codes): 8e
Changed system type of partition 3 to 8e (Unknown)
Command (m for help): w


Convert it into a PV and add it to the volume group:








# pvcreate /dev/hda3
# vgextend vg /dev/hda3








Chapter 12. Dangerous Operations














WarningWarning
Don't do this unless you're really sure of what you're doing.
You'll probably lose all your data.




12.1. Restoring the VG UUIDs using uuid_editor


If you've upgraded LVM from previous versions to early 0.9 and
0.9.1 versions of LVM and vgscan says
vgscan -- no volume groups found,
this is one way to fix it.

  • Download the UUID fixer program from the contributor
    directory at Sistina.

    It is located at
    ftp://ftp.sistina.com/pub/LVM/contrib/uuid_fixer-0.3-IOP10.tar.gz"

  • Extract uuid_fixer-0.3-IOP10.tar.gz








    # tar zxf uuid_fixer-0.3-IOP10.tar.gz



  • cd to uuid_fixer








    # cd uuid_fixer


    You have one of two options at this point:

    1. Use the prebuild binary (it is build for i386
      architecture).

      Make sure you list all the PVs in the VG you are
      restoring, and follow the prompts








      # ./uuid_fixer <LIST OF ALL PVS IN VG TO BE RESTORED>



    2. Build the uuid_builder program from source

      Edit the Makefile with your favorite editor, and make
      sure LVMDIR points to your LVM source.

      Then run make.








      # make


      Now run uuid_fixer. Make sure you list all the PVs in
      the VG you are restoring, and follow the prompts.








      # ./uuid_fixer <LIST OF ALL PVS IN VG TO BE RESTORED>





  • Deactivate any active Volume Groups
    (optional)








    # vgchange -an



  • Run vgscan








    # vgscan



  • Reactivate Volume Groups








    # vgchange -ay







12.2. Sharing LVM volumes














WarningLVM is not cluster aware
Be very careful doing this, LVM is not currently cluster-aware
and it is very easy to lose all your data.


If you have a fibre-channel or shared-SCSI environment where more
than one machine has physical access to a set of disks then you can
use LVM to divide these disks up into logical volumes. If you want
to share data you should really be looking at
GFS or other
cluster filesystems.

The key thing to remember when sharing volumes is that all the LVM
administration must be done on one node only and that all other
nodes must have LVM shut down before changing anything on the admin
node. Then, when the changes have been made, it is necessary to
run vgscan on the other nodes before reloading the volume groups.
Also, unless you are running a cluster-aware filesystem (such as
GFS) or application on the volume, only one node can mount each
filesystem. It is up to you, as system administrator to enforce
this, LVM will not stop you corrupting your data.

The startup sequence of each node is the same as for a single-node
setup with








vgscan
vgchange -ay


in the startup scripts.
If you need to do any changes to
the LVM metadata (regardless of whether it affects volumes mounted
on other nodes) you must go through the following sequence. In the
steps below ``admin node'' is any arbirarily chosen node in the
cluster.








Admin node Other nodes
---------- -----------
Close all Logical volumes (umount)
vgchange -an
<make changes, eg lvextend>
vgscan
vgchange -ay














NoteVGs should be active on the admin node
You do not need to, nor should you, unload the VGs on
the admin node, so this can be the node with the highest uptime
requirement.


I'll say it again: Be very careful doing
this






Chapter 13. Reporting Errors and Bugs


Just telling us that LVM did not work does not provide us with enough
information to help you. We need to know about your setup and the
various components of your configuration. The first thing you should
do is check the
linux-lvm mailing list archives
to see if someone else has already reported the same bug. If you do
not find a bug report for a problem similar to yours you should
collect as much of the following information as possible. The list is
grouped into three categories of errors.

  • For compilation errors:

    1. Detail the specific version of LVM you have. If you
      extracted LVM from a tarball give the name of the tar file
      and list any patches you applied. If you acquired LVM
      from the Public CVS server, give the date and time you
      checked it out.

    2. Provide the exact error message. Copy a couple of lines of
      output before the actual error message, as well as, a
      couple of lines after. These lines occasionally give
      hints as to why the error occurred.

    3. List the steps, in order, that produced the error. Is the
      error reproducible? If you start from a clean state does
      the same sequence of steps reproduce the error?



  • For LVM errors:

    1. Include all of the information requested in the
      compilation section.

    2. Attach a short description of your hardware: types of
      machines and disks, disks interface (SCSI, FC, NBD). Any
      other tidbits about your hardware you feel is important.

    3. Include the output from pinfo -s

    4. The command line used to make LVM and the file system on
      top of it.

    5. The command line used to mount the file system.



  • When LVM trips a panic trap:

    1. Include all of the information requested in two sections
      above.

    2. Provide the debug dump for the machine. This is best
      accomplished if you are watching the console output of the
      computer over a serial link, since you can't very well
      copy and paste from a panic'd machine, and it is very easy
      to mistype something if you try to copy the output by
      hand.




This can be a lot of information. If you end up with more than a
couple of files, tar and gzip them into a single archive. Submit this
compressed archive file to lvm-devel along with a short description of
the error.




Chapter 14. Contact and Links



14.1. Mail lists


Before you post to any of our lists please read the all of this
document and check the
archives
to see if your question has already been answered. Please post in
text only to our lists, fancy formated messages are near impossible
to read if someone else is not running a mail client that
understands it. Standard mailing list etiquette applies.
Incomplete questions or configuration data make it very hard for us
to answer your questions.

Subscription to all lists is accomplished through a
web interface.


LVM Mailing Lists

linux-lvm
This list is aimed at user-related questions and comments.
You may be able to get the answers you need from other
people who have the same issues. Open discussion is
encouraged. Bug reports should be sent to this list,
although technical discussion regarding the bug's fix may
be moved to the lvm-devel list.

lvm-devel
This is the development list for LVM. It is intended to be
an open discussion on bugs, desired features, and
questions about the internals of LVM. Feel free to post
anything relevant to LVM or logical volume managers in
general. We wish this to be a fairly high volume list.

lvm-commit
This list gets messages automatically whenever someone
commits to the cvs tree. Its main purpose is to keep up
with the cvs tree.

lvm-bugs
This list is rarely used anymore. Bugs should be sent to
the linux-lvm list.





14.2. Links


LVM Links:



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