## 2011年4月10日星期日

### \documentclass{book, report, article or letter}

A LaTeX document starts with the command `\documentclass [option] {type}`. The most common document-classes in LaTex are:

1. book
2. report
3. article
4. letter

All of them are similar, except letter. The main differences can be summerised as follows:

• An “article” does not provide “chapter”, whereas “book” and “report” do. Thus, the first structuring element of an “article” is `\section{name}`.
• In a “book”, a header is automatically added to each page indicating the page number as well as the chapter name on even pages and the section name on odd pages
• A “book” is always 2-sided whereas in a “report” or “article” you have to specify it by using the “twoside” option. In addition, in a “book” and “report” the “titlepage” and “abstract” will take a whole page each, which is not the case for “article”. In an “article”, you can use the options “titlepage” and “abstract”.
• The “letter” provides a US-type letter format.

Available document structure commands:

Book: `\part{}, \chapter{}, \section{}, \subsection{}, \subsubsection{}, \paragraph{}, \subparagraph{}`.

Report: `\part{}, \chapter{}, \section{}, \subsection{}, \subsubsection{}, \paragraph{}, \subparagraph{}`.

Article: `\part{}, \section{}, \subsection{}, \subsubsection{}, \paragraph{}, \subparagraph{}`.

Letter: A letter does not know the same structuring commands as other formats, but more specific commands like `\signature{}, \address{}, \opening{} and \closing{}`.

Except `\part{}`, all structuring commands build a hierarchy. They have a standard formating and numeration.

Other less common document-classes:

1. “proc” for a protocol (two columns by default and smaller borders on the left and right)
2. “slides” for a presentations
3. “minimal, a prototype for your own document type

You can always change the standard document types, by adapting the *.cls-file to your needs.

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