2011年9月20日星期二

BibTeX complete manual

http://www.tex.ac.uk/tex-archive/info/bibtex.hlp
http://nwalsh.com/tex/texhelp/bibtx-4.html


1 BibTeX
Invokes the BibTeX utility to compile a bibliography file for
LaTeX. Full details can be found in "LaTeX: A Document Preparation
System" by Leslie Lamport.

Format:

BIBTEX bibliography-file-spec
2 Parameters
bibliography-file-spec

Specifies the name of the bibliography database file to be compiled
by BibTeX. If the file specification does not include a file type,
BibTeX assumes a default type of BIB.
2 Command_Qualifiers
/BIBINPUTS
/BIBINPUTS=(name,...)

Specify directories containing input files, and the order in which
they will be searched to locate each input file. A null value in the
list indicates the current directory. The search procedure TeX uses
to locate input files is to first search your default directory and
then search each of the directories specified by the /BIBINPUTS
option.

Default is /BIBINPUTS=(TEX_BIB:); TeX looks in the directory
associated with the logical name TEX_BIB.
/STATS
/STATS
/NOSTATS [D]

This qualifier is used while debugging .BST files to determine BIBTEX
memory usage.
/TEXINPUTS
/TEXINPUTS=(name,...)

Specify directories containing input files, and the order in which
they will be searched to locate each input file. A null value in the
list indicates the current directory. The search procedure TeX uses
to locate input files is to first search your default directory and
then search each of the directories specified by the /TEXINPUTS
option.

Default is /TEXINPUTS=(TEX_INPUTS); TeX looks in the directory
associated with the logical name TEX_INPUTS.
/TRACE
/TRACE
/NOTRACE [D]

This qualifier is used while debugging .BST files to follow program
flow.
2 bib_files
This help entry contains the same information as Appendix B of the
LaTeX manual. It describes the format of a bibliography database
(.BIB) file.

A bibliography database file may contains two types of entry - an
abbreviation definition or a reference entry for citation.
3 @STRING_command
The @STRING command is used to define abbreviations for use by
BibTeX within the bibliography database file. The command

@string{jgg1 = "Journal of Gnats and Gnus, Series~1"}

defines 'jgg1' to be the abbreviation for the string "Journal of
Gnats and Gnus, Series~1". Parentheses can be used in place of the
outermost braces in the @string command, and braces can be used
instead of the quotation marks. The text must have matching braces.

The case of letters is ignored in an abbreviation as well as in the
command name @string, so the command above could have been written:

@STRING{JgG1 = "Journal of Gnats and Gnus, Series~1"}

A @string command can appear anywhere before or between entries in a
bibliography database file. However, it must come before any use of
the abbreviation, so a sensible place for @string commands is at the
beginning of the file. A @string command in the bibliography
database file takes precedence over a definition made by the
bibliography style, so it can be used to change the definition of an
abbreviation such as 'Feb'.
3 Entry_format
A bibliography database file contains a series of reference
entries like the following:

@BOOK{kn:gnus,
AUTHOR = "Donald E. Knudson",
TITLE = "1966 World Gnus Almanac",
PUBLISHER = {Permafrost Press},
ADDRESS = {Novisibirsk} }

The @BOOK states that this is an entry of type book. various entry
types are described below. The 'kn:gnus' is the citation key, as it
appears in the argument of a \cite command referring to the entry.

This entry has four fields, named AUTHOR, TITLE, PUBLISHER and
ADDRESS. The meanings of these and other fields are described below.
A field consists of the name, an '=' character with optional space
around it, followed by its text. The text of a field is a string of
characters, with no unmatched braces, surrounded by either a pair of
braces or a pair of '"' characters. Entry fields are separated from
one another, and from the citation key, by commas. A comma may have
optional space around it.

The outermost braces that surround the entire entry may be replaced
by parentheses. As in TeX input files, an end-of-line character
counts as a space and one space is equivalent to many spaces. Unlike
TeX, BibTeX ignores the case of letters in the entry type, citation
key and field names. The above entry could have been typed as
follows:

@BOOK(kn:gnus, author = {Donald E. Knudson},
TITLE = "1966 World Gnus
Almanac",
PUBLISHER = {Permafrost Press},
ADDRESS = {Novisibirsk} )

However, the case of letters does matter to LaTeX, so the citation
key ("kn:gnus" in the example above) should appear exactly the same
in all \cite commands in the LaTeX input file.

The quotes or braces can be omitted around text consisting entirely
of numerals. the following two fields are equivalent:

Volume = "27" Volume = 27
3 Entry_types
When entering a reference in the bibliography database, the first
thing to decide is what type of entry it is. No fixed classification
scheme can be complete, but BibTeX provides enough entry types to
handle almost any reference reasonably well.

References to different types of publications contain different
information; a reference to a journal might include the volume and
number of the journal, which is usually not meaningful for a book.
Therefore, database entries of different types have different fields
for each entry type, the fields are divided into three classes:

o Required
omitting the field will produce an error message and may
result in a badly formatted bibliography entry. If the
required information is not meaningful, you are using
the wrong entry type.
o Optional
the field's information will be used if present, but can
be omitted without causing any formatting problems. A
reference should contain any available information that
might help the reader, so you should include the optional
field if it is applicable.
o Ignored
the field is ignored. BibTeX ignores any field that is
not required or optional, so you can include any fields
you want in a bibliography entry. It's often a good idea
to put all relevant information about a reference in its
bibliography entry - even information that may never
appear in the bibliography. For example, if you want to
keep an abstract of a paper in a computer file, put it in
an 'abstract' field in the paper's bibliography entry.
The bibliography database file is likely to be as good a
place as any for the abstract, and it is possible to
design a bibliography style for printing selected
abstracts.

BibTeX ignores the case of letters in the entry type.
4 article_entry
An article from a journal or magazine.

Format: @ARTICLE{citation_key,
required_fields [, optional_fields] }

Required fields: author, title, journal, year
Optional fields: volume, number, pages, month, note, key
4 book_entry
A book with an explicit publisher.

Format: @BOOK{citation_key,
required_fields [, optional_fields] }

Required fields: author or editor, title, publisher, year
Optional fields: volume, series, address, edition, month, note, key
4 booklet_entry
A work that is printed and bound, but without a named publisher
or sponsoring institution.

Format: @BOOKLET{citation_key,
required_fields [, optional_fields] }

Required fields: title
Optional fields: author, howpublished, address, month, year, note,
key
4 conference_entry
An article in the proceedings of a conference. This entry is
identical to the 'inproceedings' entry and is included for
compatibility with another text formatting system.

Format: @CONFERENCE{citation_key,
required_fields [, optional_fields] }

Required fields: author, title, booktitle, year
Optional fields: editor, pages, organization, publisher, address,
month, note, key
4 inbook_entry
A part of a book, which may be a chapter and/or a range of
pages.

Format: @INBOOK{citation_key,
required_fields [, optional_fields] }

Required fields: author or editor, title, chapter and/or pages,
publisher, year
Optional fields: volume, series, address, edition, month, note, key
4 incollection_entry
A part of a book with its own title.

Format: @INCOLLECTION{citation_key,
required_fields [, optional_fields] }

Required fields: author, title, booktitle, year
Optional fields: editor, pages, organization, publisher, address,
month, note, key
4 inproceedings_entry
An article in the proceedings of a conference.

Format: @INPROCEEDINGS{citation_key,
required_fields [, optional_fields] }

Required fields: author, title, booktitle, year
Optional fields: editor, pages, organization, publisher, address,
month, note, key
4 manual_entry
Technical documentation.

Format: @MANUAL{citation_key,
required_fields [, optional_fields] }

Required fields: title
Optional fields: author, organization, address, edition, month,
year, note, key
4 mastersthesis_entry
A Master's thesis.

Format: @MASTERSTHESIS{citation_key,
required_fields [, optional_fields] }

Required fields: author, title, school, year
Optional fields: address, month, note, key
4 misc_entry
Use this type when nothing else seems appropriate.

Format: @MISC{citation_key,
required_fields [, optional_fields] }

Required fields: none
Optional fields: author, title, howpublished, month, year, note, key
4 phdthesis_entry
A PhD thesis.

Format: @PHDTHESIS{citation_key,
required_fields [, optional_fields] }

Required fields: author, title, school, year
Optional fields: address, month, note, key
4 proceedings_entry
The proceedings of a conference.

Format: @PROCEEDINGS{citation_key,
required_fields [, optional_fields] }

Required fields: title, year
Optional fields: editor, publisher, organization, address, month,
note, key
4 techreport_entry
A report published by a school or other institution, usually
numbered within a series.

Format: @TECHREPORT{citation_key,
required_fields [, optional_fields] }

Required fields: author, title, institution, year
Optional fields: type, number, address, month, note, key
4 unpublished_entry
A document with an author and title, but not formally published.

Format: @UNPUBLISHED{citation_key,
required_fields [, optional_fields] }


Required fields: author, title, note
Optional fields: month, year, key
3 Field_text
The text of the field is enclosed in braces or double quote
characters. A part of the text is said to be enclosed in braces if
it lies inside a matching pair of braces other than the ones
enclosing the entire entry or the entire field text.

BibTeX manipulates the case of letters in the field text as described
in the subtopics below.
4 Names
The text of an author or editor field represents a list of
names. The bibliography style determines the format in which the
name is printed: whether the first name or last name appears first,
if the full first name or just the first initial is used, etc. The
bibliography file entry simply tells BibTeX what the name is.

You should type an author's complete name and let the bibliography
style decide what to abbreviate. (But an author's complete name may
be "Donald~E. Knuth" or even "J.~P.~Morgan"; you should type it the
way the author would like it to appear, if that's known.)

Most names can be entered in the obvious way, either with or without
a comma, as in the following examples.

"John Paul Jones" "Jones, John Paul"
"Ludwig von Beethoven" "von Beethoven, Ludwig"

Some people have multiple last names - for example, Per Brinch
Hansen's last name is Brinch~Hansen. His name should be typed with a
comma:

"Brinch Hansen, Per"

To understand why, you must understand how BibTeX handles names (for
what follows, a "name" corresponds to a person).

Each name consists of four parts: First, von, Last, and~Jr; each
part consists of a (possibly empty) list of name-tokens. For example
the First part of Per Brinch~Hansen's name has the single token
"Per"; the Last part has two, "Brinch" and "Hansen"; and the von and
Jr parts are empty. If you had typed

"Per Brinch Hansen"

instead, BibTeX would erroneously think "Brinch" were a First-part
token, just as "Paul" is a First-part token in "John~Paul Jones".

Here's another example:

"Charles Louis Xavier Joseph de la Vallee Poussin"

This name has four tokens in the First part, two in the von, and two
in the Last. Here BibTeX knows where one part ends and the other
begins because the tokens in the von part begin with lower-case
letters.

If you want BibTeX to consider something a single token, enclose it
in braces. You should do this, for example, if a comma is part of a
name:

"{Barnes and Noble, Inc.}"
"{Barnes and} {Noble, Inc.}"
"{Barnes} {and} {Noble,} {Inc.}"

The braces surrounding the comma keep "Inc." from being interpreted
as a First token; this name has only a Last part, with either one,
two, or four tokens (there must be a space separating the tokens in
the second and third forms). Probably the second form is slightly
more meaningful, but don't lose sleep over this since only rarely
will an institution be an author or editor.

So the two names

"von Beethoven, Ludwig" "{von Beethoven}, Ludwig"

are considered by BibTeX to be different names. In the first,
"Beethoven" is the Last part and "von" is the von part; in the
second, which in this case happens to be incorrect, the Last part has
a single token and there's no von part. The bibliography style will
probably print both the same, but it may alphabetize and label them
differently.

"Juniors" pose a special problem. Most people having "Jr." in their
name precede it with a comma. Such a name should be entered as
follows:

"Ford, Jr., Henry"

However, a few people do not use a comma. They are handled by
considering the "Jr." to be part of the last Last token:

"{Steele Jr.}, Guy L." "Guy L. {Steele Jr.}"

This name has no Jr part.

To summarize, you may type a name in one of three forms:

"First von Last"
"von Last, First"
"von Last, Jr, First"

You may almost always use the first form; you shouldn't if either
there's a Jr part or the Last part has multiple tokens but there's no
von part.

If there are multiple authors or editors, their names must be
separated by the word "and", surrounded by spaces, not enclosed in
braces:

AUTHOR = "Ralph Alpher and Bethe, Hans and George Gamow"

Since BibTeX interprets commas as separating parts of a name and
"and" as separating names themselves, this example has three
coauthors: Ralph Alpher, Hans Bethe, and George Gamow. If the word
"and" appears as part of a name, it must be enclosed in braces, as in
the example of "Barnes and Noble,~Inc." given above. If you have too
many names to list in a field, you can end the list with "and
others"; the standard styles appropriately append an "et al."

BibTeX's rules are actually a bit more complicated than indicated
here, but this description will suffice for most names.
4 Titles
The bibliography style determines whether or not a title is
capitalized; the titles of books usually are, the title of articles
usually are not. You type a title the way it should appear if it is
capitalized (you should capitalize everything but articles and
unstressed conjunctions and prepositions, and even these should be
capitalized as the first word or the first after a colon):

TITLE = "The Agony and the Ecstasy"

BibTeX will change uppercase letters to lowercase if appropriate.
Uppercase letters that should not be changed are enclosed in braces.
The following two titles are equivalent; the "A" of "Africa" will not
be made lowercase.

"The Gnats and Gnus of {Africa}"
"The Gnats and Gnus of {A}frica"
4 Abbreviations
Instead of an ordinary text string, the text of a field can be
replaced by an abbreviation for it. An abbreviation is a string of
characters that starts with a letter and does not contain a space or
any of the following ten characters:

" # % ' ( ) , = { }

The abbreviation is typed in place of the text field, with no braces
or quotation marks. If 'jgg1' is an abbreviation for

Journal of Gnats and Gnus, Series~1

then the following are equivalent:

JOURNAL = jgg1
JOURNAL = "Journal of Gnats and Gnus, Series~1"

Some abbreviations are predefined by the bibliography style. These
always include the usual 3 letter abbreviations for the month: jan,
feb, mar etc.

Bibliography styles usually contain abbreviations for the names of
commonly referenced journals. Consult the Local Guide for a list of
the predefined abbreviations for the bibliography styles available.

You can define your own abbreviations by using BibTeX's @STRING
command.
3 Field_types
Below is a list of all fields recognized by the standard
bibliography styles. An entry can also contain other fields, which
are ignored by those styles.

BibTeX ignores the case of letters in the field names.
4 address_field
Publisher's address. For major publishing houses, just the city
is given. For small publishers, you can help the reader by giving
the complete address.

Format: ADDRESS = field_text
4 annote_field
An annotation, used only for annotated bibliography styles
(which are not among the standard ones).

Format: ANNOTE = field_text
4 author_field
The name(s) of the author(s).

Format: AUTHOR = field_text
4 booktitle_field
Title of a book, part of which is being cited.

Format: BOOKTITLE = field_text
4 chapter_field
A chapter number.

Format: CHAPTER = field_text
4 edition_field
The edition of a book - for example, "second".

Format: EDITION = field_text
4 editor_field
Name(s) of editor(s). If there is also an "author" field, then
the "editor" field gives the editor of the book or collection in
which the reference appears.

Format: EDITOR = field_text
4 howpublished_field
How something strange has been published.

Format: HOWPUBLISHED = field_text
4 institution_field
The institution that published the work.

Format: INSTITUTION = field_text
4 journal_field
A journal name. Abbreviations are provided for many journals;
see the Local Guide.

Format: JOURNAL = field_text
4 key_field
Used for alphabetizing and creating a label when the "author"
and "editor" fields are missing. This field should not be confused
with the citation key that appears in the \cite command and at the
beginning of the entry.

Format: KEY = field_text
4 month_field
The month in which the work was published or, for an unpublished
work, in which it was written.

Format: MONTH = field_text
4 note_field
Any additional information that can help the reader.

Format: NOTE = field_text
4 number_field
The number of a journal, magazine, or technical report. An
issue of a journal or magazine is usually identified by its volume
and number; the organization that issues a technical report usually
gives it a number.

Format: NUMBER = field_text
4 organization_field
The organization sponsoring a conference.

Format: ORGANIZATION = field_text
4 pages_field
A page number or range of numbers such as "42--111"; you may
also have several of these, separating them with commas:
"7,41,73--97". The standard styles convert a single dash to a
double.

Format: PAGES = field_text
4 publisher_field
The publisher's name.

Format: PUBLISHER = field_text
4 school_field
The name of the school where a thesis was written.

Format: SCHOOL = field_text
4 series_field
The name of a series or set of books. When citing an entire
book, the the "title" field gives its title and an optional "series"
field gives the name of a series in which the book is published.

Format: SERIES = field_text
4 title_field
The work's title.

Format: TITLE = field_text
4 type_field
The type of a technical report - for example, "Research Note".

Format: TYPE = field_text
4 volume_field
The volume of a journal or multivolume book work.

Format: VOLUME = field_text
4 year_field
The year of publication or, for an unpublished work, the year it
was written. This field's text should contain only numerals.

Format: YEAR = field_text
2 bst_files
Bibliography style files define the style of a bibliography source
list.

The standard bibliography style files are PLAIN, UNSRT, ALPHA and
ABBRV.

If you want to make a bibliography style of your own, look at
SAMPLE.BST.
3 ABBRV.BST
This style is the same as the style defined in PLAIN.BST, except that
entries are more compact because first names, month names and journal
names are abbreviated.
3 ALPHA.BST
This style is the same as the style defined in PLAIN.BST except that
entry labels like "Knu66", formed from the author's name and the year
of publication, are used.
3 PLAIN.BST
This style is formatted more or less as suggested by Mary-Claire van
Leunen in "A Handbook for Scholars" (Alfred A. Knopf, New York,
1979). Entries are sorted alphabetically and are labelled with
numbers.
3 SAMPLE.BST
This is a sample bibliography style file meant to help you construct
a new style. It creates a bibliography in which entries appear as
follows:

[Jones79] Jones, R. L. and Richards, P. Q. The Birds and the Bees.
{\it Journal of Irreproducible Results 4}, 2 (Jan. 1979), 27-33.

[Jones82a] Jones, P. G. The Bees and the Trees ... (1982).

[Jones82b] Jones, R. L. The Trees and the Peas ... (1982).

[Krist74] Kristofferson, R. P. Peopl and Places ... (1974)

It should illustrate how you write a style file. The functions are
described in an informal Pascal-like style in comments. Because of
the way while loops and if-then-else statements must use functions,
the following convention is used. If a while loop is labeled 'foo'
in the informal description, then its test and body are the functions
named 'foo.test' and 'foo.body'. If an if statement is labeled
'foo', then its two clauses are the functions named 'foo.then' and
'foo.else'. (Null clauses just use the 'skip$' function.) Note that
because functions have to be defined in terms of already-defined
functions, the actual function definitions are given in a 'bottom-up'
order.
3 UNSRT.BST
This style is that same as PLAIN.BST except that entries appear in
the order of their first citation.

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